Colloidal Minerals Plus Trace Minerals Body Booster by OxyLife Products
OxyLife Colloidal Minerals Plus 72 Plant Derived Minerals (473 ml)
OxyLife’s Colloidal Mineral Plus formula provides you all of the minerals your body will need on a daily basis in particle-sized colloids that are easily absorbed into the bloodstream. OxyLife's Colloidal Minerals Plus is a proprietary mix that can help you build strong muscles, eliminate toxins in your body, and boost your immune system by providing it the fuel that it needs to function properly. OxyLife Colloidal Minerals Plus is a mineral supplement that comes in a great tasting lemon lime flavor and if used properly can help regulate your blood pressure. Vitamins are only half of what your body needs to run the way you want it to. Minerals are just as important and this blend takes into account all of the essentials in the quantities that you want them in.
Benefits of OxyLife Colloidal Minerals Plus:
- Provides structural integrity for muscles, skin and hair
- Helps eliminate toxins
- Supports enzyme function
- Enhances protein synthesis
- Provides electrolytes for cellular fluid balance
- Helps regulate blood pressure
- Support the immune system
- Body booster
Diet is a word that everyone dreads and yet it is one of the most common practices in the United States. Everyone seems to be on a diet of some kind. Programs like Atkins and South Beach have made millions for their respective creators. Many of the principles and practices of these diets are the same. They all boil down to the metabolism and physical make-up of the human body. Losing weight is a matter of proper nutrition and chemical actions inside the body that cause it to burn fat and calories.
The dietary supplements that they carry are natural supplements which can help the body perform its magic and assist you in losing weight. These are not drugs. Many of the chemicals present in our supplements are already present in your system and our products just enhance them and add to the power of your own metabolism. When you use supplements from OxyLife you’ll be losing weight naturally and keeping it off with a steady routine of healthy eating and exercise.
There are no “magic bullets” when it comes to weight loss. It is a process. Anyone who tells you grand stories about losing twenty pounds in your first week is trying to sell you a product that doesn’t work. The body needs to lose weight naturally and there is nothing that will accelerate that process to that rate. That’s where OxyLife gives you an advantage. They provide detailed information on all of our diet and nutrition supplements and even testimonials from those who have used them in the past. You will know exactly what you are taking and be able to set realistic goals that you can hope to achieve.
Do you get enough vitamins and minerals in your diet? Chances are if you work full time, have kids, or live in the world of fast food restaurants and donut shops then you probably don’t eat a balanced diet every day. Nutrition, unfortunately, is an area where most adults are lacking. All of the valuable information that our parents taught us when we were children about the four food groups and balanced meals seems to have gone out the window in a lifestyle made up of “too busy” and “got to run”.
OxyLife has a solution for you. This is not to justify your poor dietary habits, but they carry supplements that will help you maintain the levels of vitamins and minerals in your system that need to be there. All of that energy which you don’t have and try to generate with coffee will come back to you if you put back the nutrients that your body craves. Vitamins and minerals are an essential part of a body’s fuel system that caffeine can’t compare to.
What is it exactly that your body is lacking the most? Do you eat enough green vegetables or citrus fruits? What is it about those foods that are so vital for your body? OxyLife has the answers for you. They’re not just a company that sells diet and nutrition supplements, they also provide detailed and comprehensive information about those supplements and how they can help you. They even give you testimonials from those who use them and can tell you from first hand experience that they work. Eat your vegetables when you can, drink juice when it’s available, and use OxyLife nutrition supplements to cover the rest. You’ll definitely feel healthier.
western medical professionals believe very strongly that there is a pharmaceutical solution for everything and that most natural remedies are simply old wives’ tales. This could not be further from the truth. OxyLife carries diet and nutrition supplements that have produced documented results and don’t affect the liver and kidneys in an adverse way like so many of the pharmaceutical solutions that are prescribed for the same conditions.
With natural and organic products that bring relief for arthritis, migraines, stress, vision loss, and prostate problems, OxyLife carries healthy alternatives to sometimes dangerous medical remedies. These are not cures and they’re not recommending that you stop your prescription medication, but stay informed about what you’re taking and why. There may be a safer, natural alternative that doesn’t have dangerous side effects on your liver and kidneys. Each of our natural supplements has detailed, comprehensive information attached to it that will tell you what to expect and what the results have been for others.
Eastern practitioners have been using natural remedies for many of the body’s aches and ailments for over four thousand years. The Indians of ancient North America and the natives of South America found many healing properties in the plants and trees that grew around their homes. These properties are still in existence today and OxyLife has combined these ancient wonders with the distribution and information distribution of modern technology to provide you healthy alternatives and supplements to traditional medicines.
The OxyLife Advantage is Choice.
You don’t have to use the conventional method to lose weight or find relief from pain and discomfort. You have options that are natural, organic and don’t come with all those nasty side effects. Your body is a temple and you should choose what you put into it.
The OxyLife Advantage is Information.
They publish comprehensive information on every product that they sell on our website. They ask our clients for testimonials and they post them indiscriminately so you know what to expect from our diet and nutrition supplements.
The OxyLife Advantage is Weight Loss
They offer weight loss supplements without dangerous chemicals and fat burners. You can diet the natural way by using organic chemicals that are already present in your body. Burn calories and fat the right way with OxyLife products.
The OxyLife Advantage is Healthy Nutrition
When you can’t eat healthy food OxyLife has the nutritional supplements to make up for the lack of vitamins and minerals in your diet. Our multi-vitamin and multi-mineral supplements will give you what you normally get from fruits and vegetables.
The OxyLife Advantage is Pain Relief
Find a natural solution at OxyLife without dangerous side effects. Tap into the secrets of the ancients and use pain relief methods that have worked for over four thousand years. Get your body working again without all the aches and pains.
The OxyLife Advantage
Is to anyone who has found us is that you can look and feel healthier when you take our diet and nutritional supplements and have a natural energy level that will sustain you through any busy day. Take advantage today and start living your life without limits.
Antimony is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sb (L. Stibium) and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metal. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber. Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic. Clinically, antimony poisoning is very similar to arsenic poisoning. In small doses, antimony causes headache, dizziness, and depression. Such small doses have in the past been reported in some acidic fruit drinks. The acidic nature of the drink is sufficient to dissolve small amounts of antimony oxide contained in the packaging of the drink. Modern manufacturing methods prevent this occurrence. Larger doses cause violent and frequent vomiting, and will lead to death in few days. Very large doses will cause violent vomiting, causing the poison to be expelled from the body before any harm is done.
Barium is a toxic chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. A soft silvery metallic element, barium is an alkaline earth metal and melts at a very high temperature. Its oxide is called baryta and it is primarily found in the mineral barite but is never found in its pure form due to its reactivity with air. Compounds of this metal are used in small quantities in paints and in glassmaking. Barium is a metallic element that is chemically similar to calcium, yet is soft and in its pure form is silvery white resembling lead. This metal oxidizes very easily when exposed to air and is highly reactive with water or alcohol. Barium is decomposed by water or alcohol. Some of the compounds of this element are remarkable for their high specific gravity, as is its sulfate: barite Ba(SO4) also called heavy spar.
Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust. Beryllium compounds are commercially mined, and the beryllium is purified for use in nuclear weapons and reactors, aircraft and space vehicle structures, instruments, x-ray machines, and mirrors. Beryllium ores are used to make specialty ceramics for electrical and high-technology applications. Beryllium alloys are used in automobiles, computers, sports equipment (golf clubs and bicycle frames), and dental bridges. Beryllium can be harmful if you breathe it. The effects depend on how much you are exposed to and for how long. If beryllium air levels are high enough (greater than 1000 ug/m3), an acute condition can result. This condition resembles pneumonia and is called acute beryllium disease Occupational and community air standards are effective in preventing most acute lung damage. Some people (1-15%) become sensitive to beryllium. These individuals may develop an inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system. This condition is called chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and can occur many years after exposure to higher than normal levels of beryllium (greater than 0.5 ug/m3). This disease can make you feel weak and tired, and can cause difficulty in breathing. It can also result in anorexia, weight loss, and may also lead to right side heart enlargement and heart disease in advanced cases. Some people who are sensitized to beryllium may not have any symptoms. The general population is unlikely to develop acute or chronic beryllium disease because ambient air levels of beryllium are normally very low (0.00003-0.0002 ug/m3). Swallowing beryllium has not been reported to cause effects in humans because very little beryllium is absorbed from the stomach and intestines. Ulcers have been seen in dogs ingesting beryllium in the diet. Beryllium contact with skin that has been scraped or cut may cause rashes or ulcers.
Bismuth is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. This heavy, brittle, white crystalline trivalent poor metal has a pink tinge and chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Of all the metals, it is the most naturally diamagnetic, and only mercury has less thermal conductivity. Lead-free bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics and in medical procedures Bismuth oxychloride is extensively used in cosmetics and bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in medicine. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) is used as an antidiarrheal.
Research suggests that this nutrient may be needed in the metabolism of calcium, magnesium, copper, phosphorus and Vitamin D. Bones contain the highest concentrations of boron. Vegetables are the best food source of boron, but levels vary based on the amount of boron in the soil. Boron can also be acquired through dairy products, fish and meat.
Is a chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35. A halogen element, bromine is a red volatile liquid at standard room temperature that is intermediate in reactivity between chlorine and iodine. Bromine vapors are corrosive and toxic. Approximately 730,000,000 kg was produced in 1993. The main applications for bromine are in fire retardants and fine chemicals.
One of the better calcium supplements, Calcium Citrate is 2.5 times more bioavailable (easier for your body to use) than calcium carbonate.
Cerium was discovered in 1803 by both Klaproth and by Berzelius and Hisinger. However, Hillebrand and Hisisnger produced the metal much later in 1875. It is the most abundant of the rare earth metals and is found in a number of minerals, which include allanite (also know as orthite), monazite, bastnasite, cerite and samarskite. Monazite and bastnasite are presently the two most important sources of cerium.
Irradiation of food is the use of ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes of cobalt or cesium or from accelerators that produce controlled amounts of beta rays or x-rays on food. The food does not become radioactive. Research over the past 40 years has shown that irradiation can be used: to destroy insects and parasites in grains, dried beans, dried fruits and vegetables, and meat and seafood; to inhibit sprouting in crops such as potatoes and onions; to delay ripening of fresh fruits and vegetables; and to decrease the numbers of microorganisms in foods. Hence, the incidence of food borne illness and disease can be decreased and the shelf life of food can be extended.
An essential mineral that is found in many unrefined foods including Brewer’s yeast, calf liver, wheat germ, nuts and cheese. Chromium is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and may help regulate blood glucose availability.
Cobalt is a hard, lustrous, silver-grey metal, a chemical element with symbol Co. It is found in various ores, and is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys. Its compounds are used in the production of inks, paints, and varnishes.
The body contains about 100mg of this trace mineral, which is stored in the liver. It serves as a constituent of enzymes, which function in a number of capacities, such as in the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, manufacturing of collagen and the healing of wounds. Copper is also involved in respiration and the release of energy.
Dysprosium is a rare earth element that has a metallic, bright silver luster, relatively stable in air at room temperature, but dissolving readily in dilute or concentrated mineral acids with the emission of hydrogen. It is soft enough to be cut with bolt-cutters (but not with a knife), and can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Dysprosium’s characteristics can be greatly affected even by small amounts of impurities.
Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A rare, silvery, white metallic lanthanide; Erbium is a solid in its normal state. It is a rare earth element, erbium is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden.
A trivalent element, pure erbium metal is malleable (or easily shaped), soft yet stable in air, and does not oxidize as quickly as some other rare-earth metals. Its salts are rose-colored, and the element has characteristic sharp absorption spectra bands in visible light, ultraviolet, and near infrared. Otherwise it looks much like the other rare earths. Its sesquioxide is called erbia. Erbium’s properties are to a degree dictated by the kind and amount of impurities present. Erbium does not play any known biological role, but is thought by some to be able to stimulate metabolism. Erbium-doped glasses or crystals can be used as optical amplification media, where erbium ions are optically pumped at around 980nm or 1480nm and then radiate light at 1550nm. This process can be used to create lasers and optical amplifiers. The 1550nm wavelength is especially important for optical communications because standard single mode optical fibers have minimal loss at this particular wavelength. A large variety of medical applications can be found (i.e. dermatology, dentistry) by utilizing the 2940nm emission (see Er:YAG_laser) which is highly absorbed in water (about 12000 1/cm).
Europium is a chemical element with the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. It was named after the continent Europe. Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements; it rapidly oxidizes in air, and resembles calcium in its reaction with water; deliveries of the metal element in solid form, even when coated with a protective layer of mineral oil, are rarely shiny. Europium ignites in air at about 150 0C to 180 0C. It is about as hard as lead and quite ductile.
Fluorine is the chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. Atomic fluorine is univalent and is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. In its elementally isolated (pure) form, fluorine is a poisonous, pale, yellowish brown gas, with chemical formula F2. Like other halogens, molecular fluorine is highly dangerous; it causes severe chemical burns on contact with skin.
Fluorine’s large electronegativity and small atomic radius gives it interesting bonding characteristics, particularly in conjunction with carbon.
Gadolinium is a chemical element that has the symbol Gd and atomic number 64. Gadolinium is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal with a metallic luster. It crystallizes in hexagonal, close-packed alpha form at room temperature, but, when heated to 1508 K or more, it transforms into its beta form, which has a body-centered cubic structure.
Unlike other rare earth elements, gadolinium is relatively stable in dry air. However, it tarnishes quickly in moist air and forms a loosely-adhering oxide that spalls off, and then exposes more surface to oxidation. Gadolinium reacts slowly with water, and it is soluble in dilute acids.
Gadolinium-157 has the highest thermal neutron capture cross-section of any known nuclide with the exception of Xenon-135, 49,000 barns, but it also has a fast burn-out rate, limiting its usefulness as a nuclear control rod material. Gadolinium becomes superconductive below a critical temperature of 1.083 K. It is strongly paramagnetic at room temperature, and exhibits ferromagnetic properties below room temperature.
Gallium is a chemical element that has the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. A soft silvery metallic poor metal, gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures but liquefies slightly above room temperature and will melt in the hand. It occurs in trace amounts in bauxite and zinc ores. An important application is in the compounds gallium nitride and gallium arsenide, used as a semiconductor, most notably in light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Elemental gallium is not found in nature, but it is easily obtained by smelting. Very pure gallium metal has a brilliant silvery color and its solid metal fractures conchoidally like glass. Gallium metal expands by 3.1 percent when it solidifies, and therefore storage in either glass or metal containers is avoided, due to the possibility of container rupture with freezing. Gallium shares the higher-density liquid state with only a few materials like germanium, bismuth, antimony and water.
Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. This lustrous, hard, silver-white metalloid is chemically similar to tin. Germanium forms a large number of organometallic compounds and is an important semiconductor material used in transistors. It is named after the country of Germany.
Germanium is a hard, grayish-white element that has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond. Germanium is a semiconductor. In its pure state, this metalloid is crystalline, brittle and retains its luster in air at room temperature. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that have an impurity of only one part in 1010. Along with gallium, bismuth, antimony and water, it is one of the few substances that expands as it freezes.
Gold is a highly sought-after precious metal that for many centuries has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelery. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. It is a soft, shiny, yellow, dense, malleable, and ductile (trivalent and univalent) transition metal. Modern industrial uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a monetary standard used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Its ISO currency code is XAU. Gold is a chemical element in the periodic table with the symbol Au (from the Latin aurum) and atomic number 79. The adjective auric refers to something made of gold. Gold does not react with most chemicals but is attacked by chlorine, fluorine, aqua regia and cyanide. Gold dissolves in mercury. In particular, gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which will dissolve most other metals. Nitric acid has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items.
A hafnium oxide precursor and a method for forming a hafnium oxide layer using the precursor are provided. The hafnium oxide precursor contains a nitrogen compound bound to HfCl4.
Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metallic element, which is stable in dry air at room temperature. A rare earth metal, it is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite.
A trivalent metallic rare earth element, holmium has the highest magnetic moment (10.6uB) of any naturally-occurring element and possesses other unusual magnetic properties. When combined with yttrium, it forms highly magnetic compounds. Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable element that is fairly corrosion-resistant and stable in dry air at standard temperature and pressure. In moist air and at higher temperatures, however, it quickly oxidizes, forming a yellowish oxide. In pure form, holmium possesses a metallic, bright silvery luster. Holmium oxide has some fairly dramatic color changes depending on the lighting conditions. In daylight, it is a tannish yellow color. Under trichromatic light, it is a fiery orange red, almost indistinguishable from the way erbium oxide looks under this same lighting. This has to do with the sharp emission bands of the phosphors, and the absorption bands of both oxides
Hydrogen is the chemical element represented by the symbol H and an atomic number of 1. At standard temperature and pressure it is a colourless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, highly flammable diatomic gas with a molecular formula H2. With an atomic mass of 1.00794 amu, hydrogen is the lightest element.
Hydrogen is the most abundant of the chemical elements, constituting roughly 75% of the universe’s elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. Elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth, and is industrially produced from hydrocarbons such as methane, after which most elemental hydrogen is used “captively” (meaning locally at the production site), with the largest markets about equally divided between fossil fuel upgrading (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production (mostly for the fertilizer market). Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis, but this process is presently significantly more expensive commercially than hydrogen production from natural gas.
The most common naturally occurring isotope of hydrogen, known as protium, has a single proton and no neutrons. In ionic compounds it can take on either a positive charge (becoming a cation composed of a bare proton) or a negative charge (becoming an anion known as a hydride). Hydrogen can form compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds. It plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry, in which many reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. As the only neutral atom for which the Schrodinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.
Indium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol In and atomic number 49. This rare, soft, malleable and easily fusible poor metal, is chemically similar to aluminum or gallium but looks more like zinc (zinc ores are also the primary source of this metal). Its current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from Indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays. It is also widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers (during World War II it was widely used to coat bearings in high-performance aircraft).
Iodine (from the Greek word Iodes, meaning “violet”), is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. Chemically, iodine is the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive halogen after astatine. Iodine is primarily used in medicine, photography and dyes. It is required in trace amounts by most living organisms. As with all other halogens (members of Group VII in the Periodic Table), iodine forms diatomic molecules, and hence, has the molecular formula of I2. Iodine is used in pharmaceuticals, antiseptics, medicine, food supplements, dyes, catalysts and photography The United States Food and Drug Administration recommends 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. This is necessary for proper production of thyroid hormone. Natural sources of iodine include seaweed, such as kelp and seafood.Â Salt for human consumption is often enriched with iodine and is referred to as iodized salt. In areas where there is little iodine in the diet-typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten-iodine deficiency gives rise to goiter, so called endemic goiter. In some such areas, this is now combated by the addition of small amounts of iodine to table salt in form of sodium iodide, potassium iodide, potassium iodate-this product is known as iodized salt. Iodine compounds have also been added to other foodstuffs, such as flour, in areas of deficiency. Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation. This is caused by lack of thyroid hormone in the infant. Iodine deficiency remains a serious problem that affects people around the globe Excess iodine has symptoms similar to those of iodine deficiency. Commonly encountered symptoms are abnormal growth of the thyroid gland and disorders in functioning and growth of the organism as a whole. Elemental iodine, I2, is deadly poison if taken in larger amounts; if 2-3 grams of it is consumed, it is fatal to humans. Iodides are similar in toxicity to bromides.
Iridium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A dense, very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum family, iridium is used in high strength alloys that can withstand high temperatures and occurs in natural alloys with platinum or osmium. Iridium is notable for being the most corrosion resistant element known and for its association with the demise of the dinosaurs, in the form of a meteorite strike. It is used in high temperature apparatus, electrical contacts, and as a hardening agent for platinum.
Iron, iron sulfate, Used in the food industry as a carrier for iron. Iron in the body works with proteins that release energy in metabolism such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood stream. Also involved in the making of amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Iron can be found in meats, poultry, and fish and many fortified foods. Fruits, vegetables and juices also provide some iron. Iron deficiency symptoms include; anemia, inability to concentrate, weakness, fatigue, pallor, being out of breath after small exertion, cold hands and feet. Some people may develop a smooth round tongue, and have difficulty swallowing. Symptoms of overload include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, shock and even death. ***Parents should be warned that iron supplements and multivitamins containing iron are the second most common cause of poisoning in young children in the U.S. (Aspirin is the first) The lethal dose of ferrous sulfate for a 2-year-old is only 3g.*** Source: Harvard Medical School - Health Publications Group, Vitamins and Minerals
Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table and is a lanthanide. Found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. Lanthanum is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is one of the most reactive of the rare-earth metals. The metal reacts directly with elemental carbon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and with halogens. It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. Cold water attacks lanthanum slowly, while hot water attacks it much more rapidly.
Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft alkali metal with a silver-white color. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of oil.
According to theory, lithium (mostly 7Li) was one of the few elements synthesized in the Big Bang, although its quantity has vastly decreased. The reasons for its disappearance and the processes by which new lithium is created continue to be important matters of study in astronomy. Lithium is the 33rd most abundant element on Earth, but due to its high reactivity only appears naturally in the form of compounds. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but is also commonly obtained from brines and clays; on a commercial scale, lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.
Trace amounts of lithium are present in the oceans and in some organisms, though the element serves no apparent biological function in humans. Nevertheless, the neurological effect of the lithium ion Li+ makes some lithium salts useful as a class of mood stabilizing drugs. Lithium and its compounds have several other commercial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, and lithium batteries. Lithium also has important links to nuclear physics: the splitting of lithium atoms was the first man-made form of nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as the fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. A metallic element, lutetium usually occurs in association with yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various processes. A strict correlation between periodic table blocks and chemical series for neutral atoms would describe lutetium as a transition metal because it is in the d-block, but it is a lanthanide according to IUPAC.
A good food source of magnesium contains a substantial amount of magnesium in relation to its calorie content and contributes at least 10 percent of the U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (U.S. RDA) for magnesium in a selected serving size. The U.S. RDA for magnesium is 400 milligrams per day. (The U.S. RDA given is for adults, except pregnant or lactating women, and children over 4 years of age.) Source USDA Citrates are compounds containing this group, either ionic compounds, the salts, or analogous covalent compounds, esters. An example of a salt is sodium citrate and an ester is trimethyl citrate. See category for a bigger list. Since citric acid is a multifunctional acid, intermediate ions exist, hydrogen citrate ion, HC6H5O72- and dihydrogen citrate ion, H2C6H5O7-. These may form salts as well, called acid salts. Salts of the hydrogen citrate ions are weakly acidic, while salts of the citrate ion itself (with an inert cation such as sodium ion) are neither acidic nor basic.
Manganese is a gray-white metal, resembling iron. It is a hard metal and is very brittle, fusible with difficulty, but easily oxidized. Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment. Certain soils are deficient in it, and so it is added to some fertilizers and given as a food supplement to grazing animals. The average human body contains about 12 milligrams and takes in about 4 milligrams per day from such foods as nuts, bran, wholegrain cereals, tea and parsley.
A heavy metal found naturally in grains and green leafy vegetables. Although the RDA has not been established, the Estimated Safe and Adequate Intake has been set at 75-250 mcg.
Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neodymium, a rare earth metal, is present in Misch metal to the extent of about 18%. The metal has a bright, silvery metallic luster, however, as one of the more reactive rare earth metals, it quickly tarnishes in air. The tarnishing forms an oxide layer that falls off, which exposes the metal to further oxidation. Although it belongs to “rare earth metals,” neodymium is not rare at all. It constitutes 38 ppm of Earth’s crust.
Nickel is a silvery white metal that takes on a high polish. It belongs to the transition metals, and is hard and ductile. It occurs most usually in combination with sulfur and iron in pentlandite, with sulfur in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral nickeline, and with arsenic and sulfur in nickel glance.
It is clear that in common with massive forms of chromium, aluminum and titanium metal that nickel is very slow to react with air, but it is a very reactive element. Because of its permanence in air and its inertness to oxidation, it is used in coins, for plating iron, brass, etc., for chemical apparatus, and in certain alloys, such as German silver. It is magnetic, and is very frequently accompanied by cobalt, both being found in meteoric iron. It is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms, especially many superalloys, and particularly stainless steel.
Niobium is a chemical element that has the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. A rare, soft, gray, ductile transition metal, niobium is found in pyrochlore and columbite. It was first discovered in the latter mineral and so was initially named columbium; now that mineral is also called “niobite”. Niobium is used in special steel alloys as well as in welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics and jewelry.
Niobium is a shiny gray, ductile metal that takes on a bluish tinge when exposed to air at room temperature for extended periods. Niobium’s chemical properties are almost identical to the chemical properties of tantalum, which appears below niobium in the periodic table.
When it is processed at even moderate temperatures niobium must be placed in a protective atmosphere. The metal begins to oxidize in air at 200 Â° C; its most common oxidation states are +3, and +5, although others are also known.
Nitrogen is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air. That there was a fraction of air that did not support combustion was well known to the late 18th century chemist. Nitrogen was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air. Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as azote, which stands for without life; this term has become the French word for “nitrogen” and later spread out to many other languages. Nitrogen is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol N and atomic number 7. Commonly a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic non-metal gas, nitrogen constitutes 78 percent of Earth’s atmosphere and is a constituent of all living tissues. Nitrogen forms many important compounds such as amino acids, ammonia, nitric acid, and cyanides. Nitrogen is an essential part of amino and nucleic acids which makes nitrogen vital to all life. Legumes like the soybean plant, can recover nitrogen directly from the atmosphere because their roots have nodules harboring microbes that do the actual conversion to ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation. The legume subsequently converts ammonia to nitrogen oxides and amino acids to form proteins.
Osmium is a chemical element that has the symbol Os and atomic number 76. Osmium is a hard, brittle, blue-gray or blue-black transition metal in the platinum family, and is one of the densest natural elements, competing for this status with iridium. Osmium is used in alloys with platinum, iridium and other platinum group metals. Osmium is found in nature as an alloy in platinum ore. Alloys of osmium are employed in fountain pen tips, electrical contacts and in other applications where extreme durability and hardness are needed.
Oxygen is the chemical element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements. At standard temperature and pressure two atoms of the element bind to form a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2. When necessary to avoid confusion, this stable allotrope (structural form) of oxygen is referred to as dioxygen. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and helium and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust. Oxygen constitutes 88.8% of the mass of water and 20.9% of the volume of air.
Palladium (PD) compounds are encountered relatively rarely by most people as they are hardly used. All palladium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic and as carcinogenic. Palladium chloride is toxic, harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. It causes bone marrow, liver and kidney damage in laboratory animals. Irritant. However palladium chloride was formerly prescribed as a treatment for tuberculosis at the rate of 0.065 g per day (approximately 1 mg/kg) without too many side effects. There are no data on palladium toxicity from food, as the concentrations are extremely low.
Phosphorus is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.
The first form of elemental phosphorus to be produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen – hence its name given from Greek mythology, F?sf???? meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. Although the term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, derives from this property of phosphorus, the glow of phosphorus originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus and should be called chemiluminescence.
The vast majority of phosphorus compounds are consumed as fertilizers. Other applications include the role of organophosphorus compounds in detergents, pesticides and nerve agents, and matches. Phosphorus is essential for life. As phosphate, it is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was historically first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. Today, the most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers, to replace the phosphorus that plants remove.
Phosphorus exists as several forms (allotropes) that exhibit strikingly different properties. The two most common allotropes are white phosphorus and red phosphorus. Another form, scarlet phosphorus, is obtained by allowing a solution of white phosphorus in carbon disulfide to evaporate in sunlight. Black phosphorus is obtained by heating white phosphorus under high pressures (about 12,000 standard atmospheres or 1.2 gigapascals). In appearance, properties, and structure, it resembles graphite, being black and flaky, a conductor of electricity, and has puckered sheets of linked atoms. Another allotrope is diphosphorus; it contains a phosphorus dimer as a structural unit and is highly reactive. White phosphorus, white phosphorus exposed to air glows in the darkness, white phosphorus and related molecular forms
The most important form of elemental phosphorus from the perspective of applications and chemical literature is white phosphorus. It consists of tetrahedral P4 molecules, in which each atom is bound to the other three atoms by a single bond. This P4 tetrahedron is also present in liquid and gaseous phosphorus up to the temperature of 800 °C when it starts decomposing to P2 molecules. Solid white exists in two forms. At low-temperatures, the ß form is stable. At high-temperatures a form is predominant. These forms differ in terms of the relative orientations of the constituent P4 tetrahedra.
White phosphorus is the least stable, the most reactive, more volatile, less dense, and more toxic than the other allotropes. White phosphorus gradually changes to red phosphorus. This transformation, which is accelerated by light and heat, and samples of white phosphorus almost always contain some red phosphorus and therefore appear yellow. For this reason, it is also called yellow phosphorus. It glows in the dark (when exposed to oxygen) with a very faint tint of green and blue, is highly flammable and pyrophoric (self-igniting) upon contact with air as well as toxic (causing severe liver damage on ingestion). Because of pyrophoricity, white phosphorus is used as an additive in napalm. The odour of combustion of this form has a characteristic garlic smell, and samples are commonly coated with white "(di)phosphorus pentoxide", which consists of P4O10 tetrahedra with oxygen inserted between the phosphorus atoms and at their vertices. White phosphorus is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide.
Thermolysis (cracking) of P4 at 1100 kelvin) gives diphosphorus, P2. This species not stable as a solid or liquid. The dimeric unit contains a triple bond and is analogous to N2. It can also be generated as a transient intermediate in solution by thermolysis of organophosphorus precursor reagents. At still higher temperatures, P2 dissociates into atomic P.
Although the term phosphorescence is derived from phosphorus, the reaction that gives phosphorus its glow is properly called chemiluminescence (glowing due to a cold chemical reaction), not phosphorescence (re-emitting light that previously fell onto a substance and excited it). Crystal structure of red phosphorus Red phosphorus is polymeric in structure. It can be viewed as a derivative of P4 wherein one P-P bond is broken, and one additional bond is formed between the neighbouring tetrahedron resulting in a chain-like structure. Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250 °C (482 °F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. Phosphorus after this treatment is amorphous. Upon further heating, this material crystallises. In this sense, red phosphorus is not an allotrope, but rather an intermediate phase between the white and violet phosphorus, and most of its properties have a range of values. For example, freshly prepared, bright red phosphorus is highly reactive and ignites at about 300 °C, though it is still more stable than white phosphorus, which ignites at about 30 °C. After prolonged heating or storage, the color darkens (see infobox images); the resulting product is more stable and does not spontaneously ignite in air.
Violet phosphorus is a form of phosphorus that can be produced by day-long annealing of red phosphorus above 550 °C. In 1865, Hittorf discovered that when phosphorus was recrystallized from molten lead, a red/purple form is obtained. Therefore this form is sometimes known as "Hittorf's phosphorus" (or violet or a-metallic phosphorus).
Crystal structure of black phosphorus. Black phosphorus is the least reactive allotrope and the thermodynamically stable form below 550 °C. It is also known as ß-metallic phosphorus and has a structure somewhat resembling that of graphite. High pressures are usually required to produce black phosphorus, but it can also be produced at ambient conditions using metal salts as catalysts.
Platinum is a chemical element with the atomic symbol Pt and an atomic number of 78. It is in group 10 of the Periodic Table of Elements. A heavy, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal, platinum is resistant to corrosion and occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits. Platinum is used in jewelery, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry, and automobile emissions control devices. Platinum bullion has the ISO currency code of XPT.
When pure, the metal appears greyish-white and firm. The metal is corrosion-resistant. The catalytic properties of the six platinum family metals are outstanding. For this catalytic property, platinum is used in catalytic converters, incorporated in automobile exhaust systems, as well as tips of spark plugs.
Potassium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods and is necessary for many normal functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart. Potassium is important in controlling the activity of your heart, muscles, nervous system, and just about every living cell in your body. Potassium helps activate enzymes for the use of amino acids, and is involved in bone calcification, the conversion of blood sugar into the stored glycogen for energy reserves, muscle contraction & coordination. It plays a role in maintaining the water balance & integrity of your cells. It is important to nerve transmission. It is involved in the transport of choline for acetylcholine synthesis in your brain. Protein & carbohydrate metabolism, glucose breakdown, & glycogen (stored glucose) are all potassium dependent. It is yet to be completely understood its function on the thyroid gland. Naturaly found in: kelp, fresh & dried fruits and vegetables, rice, wheat bran, potatoes, bananas, orange juice, apricots, nuts, seeds, grains, mushrooms, molasses, and some seafood.
Praseodymium is a chemical element that has the symbol Pr and atomic number 59. Praseodymium is a soft silvery metal in the lanthanide group. It is somewhat more resistant to corrosion in air than europium, lanthanum, cerium, or neodymium, but it does develop a green oxide coating that spalls off when exposed to air, exposing more metal to oxidation. For this reason, praseodymium should be stored under a light mineral oil or sealed in glass.
Rhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic number 75. A silvery-white, rare, heavy, polyvalent transition metal, rhenium resembles manganese chemically and is used in some alloys. Rhenium is obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement and rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconducting. It was the last naturally occurring element to be discovered and belongs to the ten most expensive metals on Earth (over US$ 7500.-/kg).
Rhenium is a silvery white metal, lustrous, and has one of the highest melting points of all elements, exceeded by only tungsten and carbon. It is also one of the most dense, exceeded only by platinum, iridium and osmium. Rhenium has the widest range of oxidation states of any known element: -3, -1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 and +7. The oxidation states +7, +6, +4, +2 and -1 are the most common.
Its usual commercial form is a powder, but this element can be consolidated by pressing and resistance-sintering in a vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. This procedure yields a compact shape that is in excess of 90 percent of the density of the metal. When annealed this metal is very ductile and can be bent, coiled, or rolled. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconductive at 10 K; tungsten-rhenium alloys are also superconductive, around 4-8 K depending on the alloy. Rhenium metal superconducts at 2.4 K.
Rhodium is a chemical element with the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. A rare silvery-white hard transition metal and a member of the platinum group, rhodium is found in platinum ores and is used in alloys with platinum and as a catalyst. It is usually the most expensive precious metal, though it is sometimes surpassed by rhenium, depending on the market.
Rhodium is a hard silvery white and durable metal that has a high reflectance. Rhodium metal does not normally form an oxide, even when heated. Oxygen is absorbed from the atmosphere at the melting point of rhodium, but on solidification the oxygen is released. Rhodium has both a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. It is not attacked by acids: it is completely insoluble in nitric acid and dissolves slightly in aqua regia. A complete dissolution of rhodium in powder form is only obtained in sulfuric acid.
Rubidium is a chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rb is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group. Rb-87, a naturally occurring isotope, is (slightly) radioactive. Rubidium is very soft and highly reactive, with properties similar to other elements in group 1, like rapid oxidation in air.
Rubidium is the second most electropositive of the stable alkali elements and liquefies at high ambient temperature (102.7 0F = 39.3 0C). Like other group 1 elements this metal reacts violently in water. In common with potassium and caesium this reaction is usually vigorous enough to ignite the liberated hydrogen. Rubidium has also been reported to ignite spontaneously in air. Also like other alkali metals, it forms amalgams with mercury and it can form alloys with gold, caesium, sodium, and potassium. The element gives a reddish-violet color to a flame, hence its name.
Ruthenium is a hard, white metal. It does not tarnish at room temperatures, but oxidises in air at about 800 0C. The metal is not attacked by hot or cold acids or aqua regia, but when potassium chlorate is added to the solution, it oxidises explosively.
Samarium is a chemical element with the symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Samarium is a rare earth metal, with a bright silver luster, that is reasonably stable in air; it ignites in air at 150 0C. Even with long-term storage under mineral oil, samarium is gradually oxidized, with a grayish-yellow powder of the oxide-hydroxide being formed. Three crystal modifications of the metal also exist, with transformations at 734 and 922 0C.
Scandium is a chemical element that has the symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery white metal that is always present as compounds, scandium ores occur as rare minerals from Scandinavia and elsewhere, and it is sometimes considered along with yttrium, and the lanthanides and actinides, to be a rare earth element.
Scandium is a rare, hard, silvery, rough very dark metallic element that develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast when exposed to air. It is not resistant to weathering when pure and is destroyed on prolonged contact with most dilute acids. However, like some other reactive metals, this metal is not attacked by a 1:1 mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrofluoric acid, HF.
An essential mineral that works with Vitamin E to protect body compounds from oxidation.
Silicon is the chemical element that has the symbol Si and atomic number 14. A tetravalent metalloid, silicon is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon. As the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, silicon occasionally occurs as the pure free element in nature, but is more widely distributed in dusts, planetoids and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide or silicate. On Earth, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the crust, making up 25.7% of the crust by mass.
Silicon has many industrial uses. Elemental silicon is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. Silicon is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than almost all other material combinations.
In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a component of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself.
Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid (a type of silica) forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.
Silver is a chemical element with the symbol “Ag”Â and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. It occurs as a free metal (native silver) as well as in various minerals, such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a by-product of copper, gold, lead, and zinc mining.
Silver has been known since antiquity, and it is used as a currency metal. It has long been valued as a precious metal used in ornaments and jewellery and in high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term “silverware”). Today, it is used in photographic film, electrical contacts and conductors, and mirrors. Elemental silver is also used to catalyze chemical reactions. Silver is antimicrobial, and dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants. Although silver has largely been supplanted by other treatments, the antiseptic properties of silver are still a useful tool in the prevention and treatment of sepsis and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms such as MRSA.
The most abundant mineral in the body. It is necessary for water balance in the body, as well as for nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction because of its influence on potassium and calcium.
Strontium is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and the atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when exposed to air. It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine and strontianite. The 90Sr isotope is present in radioactive fallout and has a half-life of 28.90 years.
Due to its extreme reactivity to air, this element occurs naturally only in compounds with other elements, as in the minerals strontianite and celestite.
Strontium is a bright silvery metal that is softer than calcium and even more reactive in water, which strontium decomposes on contact with to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride, but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380Â°C it will only form the oxide spontaneously at room temperature. It should be kept under kerosene to prevent oxidation; freshly exposed strontium metal rapidly turns a yellowish color with the formation of the oxide. Finely powered strontium metal will ignite spontaneously in air. Volatile strontium salts impart a crimson color to flames, and these salts are used in pyrotechnics and in the production of flares. Natural strontium is a mixture of four stable isotopes
The human body absorbs strontium as if it were calcium. Due to the elements being sufficiently similar chemically, the stable forms of strontium do not pose a significant health threat, but the radioactive 90Sr can lead to various bone disorders and diseases, including bone cancer. The strontium unit is used in measuring radioactivity from absorbed 90Sr.
An innovative drug made by combining strontium with ranelic acid has aided in bone growth, boosted bone density and lessened vertebral, peripheral and hip fractures.  Women receiving the drug showed a 12.7% increase in bone density. Women receiving a placebo had a 1.6% decrease. Half the increase in bone density (measured by x-ray densitometry) is attributed to the higher atomic weight of Sr compared with calcium, whereas the other half a true increase in bone mass. It means that strontium ranelate creates new, stronger bone. Strontium ranelate (marketed under the trade names Protelos, Osseor, Protos, Bivalos, Protaxos, Ossum) is registered for treatment of osteoporosis in many countries all over the world. Strontium ranelate has been shown to strengthen bones, according presentations given the IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis, in June of 2006. It also reduced bone resorbtion.
Strontium ranelate is registered as a prescription drug in Europe and many countries worldwide. It needs to be prescribed by a doctor, delivered by a pharmacist and requires a strict medical supervision. Currently, (early 2007) it is not available in Canada or the United States.
Several other salts of strontium such as strontium citrate or strontium carbonate are often presented as natural therapies and sold at a dose that is several hundred times higher than the usual strontium intake. Despite the lack of strontium deficit referenced in the medical literature and the lack of information about possible toxicity of strontium supplementation, such compounds can still be sold in the United States under the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994. However, their long-term safety and efficacy have never been evaluated on humans using large-scale medical trials. Such compounds should not be administered to humans before further studies are conducted
Is present in proteins and plays an important role in determining the contour of protein molecules. Skin, hair and nails contain some of the body’s more rigid protein and these have a high sulfur content. Sulfur containing amino acids include L-cysteine, L-cystine, L-menthionine and taurine.
Tantalum (pronounced /ËˆtÃ¦ntÉ™lÉ™m/) (formerly tantalium /tÃ¦nËˆtÃ¦liÉ™m/) is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. A rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous, transition metal, tantalum is highly corrosion-resistant and occurs naturally in the mineral tantalite.
Tantalum is dark, dense, ductile, very hard, easily fabricated, and highly conductive of heat and electricity. The metal is renowned for its resistance to corrosion by acids; in fact, at temperatures below 150 Â°C tantalum is almost completely immune to attack by the normally aggressive aqua regia. It can be dissolved with hydrofluoric acid or acidic solutions containing the fluoride ion and sulfur trioxide, as well as with a solution of potassium hydroxide. Tantalum’s high melting point of 3017 Â°C (boiling point 5458 Â°C) is exceeded only by tungsten and rhenium for metals, and carbon.
Tellurium is a chemical element that has the symbol Te and atomic number 52. A brittle silver-white metalloid which looks like tin, tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. Tellurium is primarily used in alloys and as a semiconductor.
Tellurium is extremely rare, one of the nine rarest elements on earth. It is in the same chemical family as oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and polonium (the chalcogens). When crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white and when it is in its pure state it has a metallic luster. This is a brittle and easily pulverized metalloid. Amorphous tellurium is found by precipitating it from a solution of tellurous or telluric acid (Te(OH)6). However, there is some debate whether this form is really amorphous or made of minute crystals.
Terbium (pronounced /ËˆtÉbiÉ™m/) is a chemical element with the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. Terbium is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is reasonably stable in air, and two crystal allotropes exist, with a transformation temperature of 1289 Â°C. Terbium(III) cation is brilliantly fluorescent, in a beautiful bright lemon-yellow color that is the result of a strong green emission line in combination with other lines in the orange and red. The yttrofluorite variety of the mineral fluorite owes its creamy-yellow fluorescence in part to terbium.
Terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate and strontium molybdate, materials that are used in solid-state devices, and as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperatures, together with ZrO2.
Terbium is also used in alloys and in the production of electronic devices. As a component of Terfenol-D (an alloy that expands or contracts to a high degree in the presence of a magnetic field), terbium is of use in actuators, sensors and other magenetomechanical devices.
Terbium oxide is used in green phosphors in fluorescent lamps and color TV tubes. Sodium terbium borate is used in solid state devices. The brilliant fluorescence allows terbium to be used as a probe in biochemistry, where it somewhat resembles calcium in its behavior. Terbium “green” phosphors (which fluoresce a brilliant lemon-yellow) are combined with divalent Europium blue phosphors and trivalent europium red phosphors to provide the “trichromatic” lighting technology, which is by far the largest consumer of the world’s terbium supply. Trichromatic lighting provides much higher light output for a given amount of electrical energy than does incandescent lighting.
Thallium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Tl and atomic number 81. This soft gray malleable poor metal resembles tin but discolors when exposed to air. Thallium is highly toxic and is used in rat poisons and insecticides but since it might also cause cancer (although the United States EPA does not class it as carcinogen), this use has been cut back or eliminated in many countries. It is also used in infrared detectors. It has even been used in some murders, earning the nicknames “The Poisoner’s Poison” and “Inheritance powder” (alongside arsenic).
Thorium is a chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. As a naturally occurring, slightly radioactive metal, it has been considered as an alternative nuclear fuel to uranium.
When pure, thorium is a silvery white metal that retains its luster for several months. However, when it is exposed to oxygen, thorium slowly tarnishes in air, becoming grey and eventually black. Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thoria, has the highest melting point of any oxide (3300Â°C). When heated in air, thorium metal turnings ignite and burn brilliantly with a white light. Thorium has the largest liquid range of any element: 2946 K between the melting point and boiling point. See Actinides for details of the environmental aspects of thorium.
Thulium (pronounced /ËˆÎ¸juËliÉ™m/) is a chemical element that has the symbol Tm and atomic number 69. A lanthanide element, thulium is the least abundant of the rare earths. It is an easily workable metal with a bright silvery-gray luster and can be cut by a knife. It has some corrosion resistance in dry air and good ductility. Naturally occurring thulium is made entirely of the stable isotope Tm-169.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. This silvery, malleable poor metal that is not easily oxidized in air and resists corrosion is found in many alloys and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. Tin is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as an oxide. It can be alloyed with copper to make bronze.
Tin bonds readily to iron, and has been used for coating lead or zinc and steel to prevent corrosion. Tin-plated steel containers are widely used for food preservation, and this forms a large part of the market for metallic tin. Speakers of British English call them “tins”; Americans call them “cans” or “tin cans”. One thus-derived use of the slang term “tinnie” or “tinny” means “can of beer”. The tin whistle is so called because it was first mass-produced in tin-plated steel.
Titanium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a light, strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including resistance to sea water and chlorine) transition metal with a white-silvery-metallic color. Titanium is used in strong lightweight alloys (most notably with iron and aluminium), and in powdered form to other materials, such as graphite composites. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is used in white pigments. The element occurs within numerous minerals with the main sources being rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed over the Earth. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element; 46Ti through 50Ti with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). One of titanium’s most notable characteristics is that it is as strong as steel but is only 60% its density. Titanium’s properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium.
Tungsten , also called wolfram is a chemical element that has the symbol W (New Latin: wolframium) and atomic number 74. A very hard, heavy, steel-gray to white transition metal, tungsten is found in several ores including wolframite and scheelite and is remarkable for its robust physical properties, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the non-alloyed metals and the second highest of all the elements after Carbon. The pure form is used mainly in electrical applications but its many compounds and alloys are widely used in many applications (most notably in light bulb filaments, and as both the filament and target in most X-ray tubes and in superalloys).
Vanadium is a chemical element that has the symbol V and atomic number 23. A soft and ductile element, vanadium naturally occurs in certain minerals and is used mainly to produce certain alloys. It is one of the 26 elements found in most living organisms.
Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660 C). Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Although a metal, it shares with chromium and manganese the property of having valency oxides with acid properties.
Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5. A popular experiment with ammonium vanadate NH4VO3, reducing the compound with zinc metal, can demonstrate colorimetrically all four of these vanadium oxidation states. A +1 oxidation state is rarely seen.
Ytterbium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. A soft silvery metallic element, ytterbium is a rare earth of the lanthanide series and is found in the minerals gadolinite, monazite, and xenotime. The element is sometimes associated with yttrium or other related elements and is used in certain steels. Natural ytterbium is a mix of seven stable isotopes. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and rather ductile element that exhibits a bright silvery luster. A rare earth element, it is easily attacked and dissolved by mineral acids, slowly reacts with water, and oxidizes in air. Ytterbium has three allotropes which are called alpha, beta and gamma and whose transformation points are at -13 Â°C and 795 Â°C. The beta form exists at room temperature and has a face-centered crystal structure while the high-temperature gamma form has a body-centered crystal structure.
A soft, silvery metal used in television screens to produce the color red. It is also employed in superconductors. The metal in synthetic form is being studied for its possible positive effects on cancer.
Zinc citrate is derived from zinc, a naturally occurring mineral. Citric acid (derived from corn) is combined with the zinc (zinc oxide) and a precipitate is formed which is purified and dried. Zinc citrate helps stop odor by inhibiting bacterial accumulation on your skin. Tartar forms in the mouth when plaque mineralizes on your teeth. The resulting hard deposits (calcified plaque or tartar) can only be removed by a dentist or hygienist. If allowed to accumulate, tartar can provide even more surface area for plaque to accumulate. Zinc citrate helps prevent tartar buildup by preventing plaque from hardening (calcifying).
Zirconium is a greyish-white lustrous metal. The finely divided metal can ignite spontaneously in air, especially at elevated temperatures. The solid metal is much more difficult to ignite. The inherent toxicity of zirconium compounds is low. Hafnium is invariably found in zirconium ores, and the separation is difficult. Commercial grade zirconium contains from 1 to 3% hafnium. The hafnium is removed from the zirconium used in the nuclear power industry. Zirconium is available from commercial sources so preparation in the laboratory is not normally required. In industry, reduction of ores with carbon is not a useful option as intractable carbides are produced.
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